Saturday, 9 June 2012

Welding Discontinuities – X-ray Films


Continuing the subject of welding that was started in the previous post, here we will emphasize on welding discontinuities. Unfortunately, welding discontinuities can negatively affect the lifetime and the performance of a product. For this reason, many welds are subjected to various inspection tests (x-rays, liquid penetration etc.) in order to examine their quality. These inspection tests are performed by a welding inspector, who should be able to spot a variety of discontinuities. The particular report can help a new inspector recognize the most common discontinuities that appear on a x-ray film.

This short review contains radiographic images of the following discontinuities:
  • Offset or mismatch
  • Offset or mismatch with lack of penetration
  • External concavity or insufficient fill
  • Excessive penetration
  • External undercut
  • Internal (root) undercut
  • Internal concavity
  • Burn through
  • Incomplete or lack of penetration
  • Interpass slag inclusions
  • Elongated slag lines
  • Lack of side wall fusion
  • Interpass cold lap
  • Scattered porosity
  • Cluster porosity
  • Root pass aligned porosity
  • Transverse crack
  • Longitudinal crack
  • Longitudinal root crack
  • Tungsten inclusions
After each image there is the description and the cause of discontinuity, as well as comments regarding how to distinguish the problematic areas on the film.

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Mechanical Engineer (Ph.D. cand.), M.Sc. Cranfield University, Dipl.-Ing. Aristotle University, Thessaloniki - Greece.
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