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Friday, 25 April 2014



Quantification Of Non-Exhaust Road Transport PM Emissions


About



As I promised you on my last post, here is another poster that was presented on TRA conference during the previous week. The poster subject is also related with particulate matter (PM) emissions and is quite related with the previous poster. More precisely, the research work – both calculations and literature review – was carried out simultaneously and, at the end, it was divided into two separate papers/posters. In any case, if you are interested about any of these posters send me an email and I will send you back the corresponding paper (around 10 pages). I hope that you will find this poster interesting.



Introduction



  • Non-exhaust emissions are not regulated. Today emissions of PM10 from wear processes are about equal to exhaust emissions and will dominate traffic related PM emissions in the near future.
  • Improvement, determination and harmonization of road transport non-exhaust PM emission factors (EFs) - 40 compounds in total.


Method



  • EFnon-exhaust = tyre wear + brake wear + road wear and resuspension
  • COPERT 4 and a combined methodology (literature review plus COPERT 4).
  • EFs correspond to urban, rural and highway conditions.
  • Only one EF for each pollutant for all EU-27 countries.
  • For technologies up to Euro 6, Euro VI, and Euro 4, EFs are taken equal to those of Euro 4, Euro IV, and Euro 2 (no improvement).
  • For future technologies Euro 7, Euro VII and Euro 5, EFs are taken to be 30% lower (assuming  the maximum technically feasible future reductions due to):
    a. better brake pads and discs
    b. reformulated rubber mixtures for tyres
    c. appropriate adjustment of pavement properties
    d. use of dust suppressants to keep road surfaces wet


Results



PM10 EFs (g-km) In Different Driving) Current And Future (PCs Αnd HDVs)

PM10 EFs [g/km] (exhaust plus non – exhaust) in different driving current and future PCs and HDVs.

PM2.5 EFs (g-km) In Different Driving) Current And Future (PCs Αnd HDVs)

PM2.5 EFs [g/km] (exhaust plus non – exhaust) in different driving current and future PCs and HDVs.

Metallic EFs For Euro 7 Passenger Cars - All Sizes

Metallic EFs [g/km] for Euro 7 Passenger Cars - all sizes.

Benzo[a]pyrene EFs In Different Driving Conditions Current And Future (PCs Αnd HDVs)

Benzo[a]pyrene EFs [x10^-7 g/km] in different driving conditions current and future PCs (all fuels) and HDVs (all fuels). EFs were obtained for 28 PAHs.

PM10 And PM2.5 Resuspension EFs For Various Vehicles

PM10 and PM2.5 resuspension EFs [g/km] for various vehicles.

Studded Tyres PN EFs For Various Vehicles

Studded tyres PN EFs [x10^10 particles/km] for various vehicles.



Conclusions



  • A database of road transport non-exhaust EFs was developed based on  COPERT 4 and on a detailed survey of the available literature.
  • Resuspension, road surface wear and studded tyres effects were included.


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Mechanical Engineer (Ph.D. cand.), M.Sc. Cranfield University, Dipl.-Ing. Aristotle University, Thessaloniki - Greece.
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