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Monday, 15 January 2018



Last updated: 15/01/2018, 1 min read (without the tables)

Pipe Friction Factor - Online Calculator


Introduction



After a long time, I am returning to a subject that has bothered me many times in the past: friction factor. This time, however, I tried to switch my typical tools, so instead of an Excel/VBA solution, you will get a free online tool. The tool calculates the pipe friction factor based on Churchill's equation. If you have read any of my previous posts, you will probably remember that Churchill's equation is valid for the entire Reynolds range (e.g. any flow type). The equation involves the calculation of two intermediate values that are used in the final equation.

Churchill Equations



Inputs

Roughness of the pipe material [μm]


Internal Diameter of the (circular) pipe [mm]


Discharge [m³/h]


Kinematic Viscosity of the fluid flowing through the pipe [cSt = 10−6 m²/s]





Results

Fluid Velocity [m/s]


Reynolds [-]


Type of flow [-]


Friction Factor [-]







Table 1: Suggested roughness values for several pipe materials.

Pipe MaterialRoughness (μm)
Aluminum1.5
Asbestos cement25
Cast iron (asphalted)122
Cast iron (uncoated)254
Concrete (steel forms, with smooth joints)180
Drawn brass1.5
Drawn copper1.5
Drawn tubing - glass, brass, plastic1.5
Fiberglass5
Fiberglass with epoxy3
Galvanized iron152
Polyethylene3
PVC1.5
Seamless commercial steel (galvanised)150
Seamless commercial steel (light rust)250
Seamless commercial steel (new)25
Stainless steel45
Welded steel600
Wood stave600
Wrought iron45


Table 2: Suggested kinematic viscosity values for various liquids.

LiquidTemperature (C)Kinematic Viscosity (cSt)
Acetaldehyde CH3CHO16.10.305
200.295
Acetic acid - vinegar - 10% CH3COOH151.35
Acetic acid - 50%152.27
Acetic acid - 80%152.85
Acetic acid - concentrated glacial151.34
Acetic acid anhydride (CH3COO)2O150.88
Acetone CH3COCH3200.41
Alcohol - allyl201.6
Alcohol - butyl-n203.64
Alcohol - ethyl (grain) C2H5OH201.52
37.81.2
Alcohol - methyl (wood) CH3OH150.74
01.04
Alcohol - propyl202.8
501.4
Aluminum sulfate - 36% solution201.41
Ammonia-17.80.3
Aniline204.37
106.4
Asphalt RC-0, MC-0, SC-025159-324
37.860-108
Automatic crankcase oil SAE 10W-17.81295-max
Automatic crankcase oil SAE 10W-17.81295-2590
Automatic crankcase oil SAE 20W-17.82590-10350
Automatic crankcase oil SAE 2098.95.7-9.6
Automatic crankcase oil SAE 3098.99.6-12.9
Automatic crankcase oil SAE 4098.912.9-16.8
Automatic crankcase oil SAE 5098.916.8-22.7
Automotive gear oil SAE 75W98.94.2 min
Automotive gear oil SAE 80W98.97.0 min
Automotive gear oil SAE 85W98.911.0 min
Automotive gear oil SAE 90W98.914-25
Automotive gear oil SAE 14098.925-43
Automotive gear oil SAE15098.943 - min
Beer201.8
Benzene (Benzol) C6H601
200.74
Bone oil54.447.5
10011.6
Bromine200.34
Butane-n-1.10.52
0.35
Butyric acid n201.61
Calcium chloride 5%18.31.156
Calcium chloride 25%15.64
Carbolic acid (phenol)18.311.83
Carbon tetrachloride CCl4200.612
37.80.53
Carbon disulfide CS200.33
200.298
Castor oil37.8259-325
54.498-130
China wood oil20.6308.5
37.8125.5
Chloroform200.38
600.35
Coconut oil37.829.8-31.6
54.414.7-15.7
Cod oil (fish oil)37.832.1
54.419.4
Corn oil54.428.7
1008.6
Corn starch solution, 22 Baumé21.132.1
37.827.5
Corn starch solution, 24 Baumé21.1129.8
37.895.2
Corn starch solution, 25 Baumé21.1303
37.8173.2
Cotton seed oil37.837.9
54.420.6
Crude oil 48o API15.63.8
54.41.6
Crude oil 40o API15.69.7
54.43.5
Crude oil 35.6o API15.617.8
54.44.9
Crude oil 32.6o API15.623.2
54.47.1
Decane-n17.82.36
37.81.001
Diethyl glycol21.132
Diethyl ether200.32
Diesel fuel 2D37.82-Ιουν
54.41.-3.97
Diesel fuel 3D37.86-11.75
54.43.97-6.78
Diesel fuel 4D37.829.8 max
54.413.1 max
Diesel fuel 5D5086.6 max
71.135.2 max
Ethyl acetate CH3COOC2H3150.4
200.49
Ethyl bromide C2H5Br200.27
Ethylene bromide200.787
Ethylene chloride200.668
Ethylene glycol21.117.8
Formic acid 10%201.04
Formic acid 50%201.2
Formic acid 80%201.4
Formic acid concentrated201.48
Trichlorofluoromethane, R-1121.10.21
Dichlorodifluoromethane, R-1221.10.27
FDichloro-fluoromethane, R-2121.11.45
Furfurol201.45
Fuel oil 121.12.39-4.28
37.8-2.69
Fuel oil 221.13.0-7.4
37.82.11-4.28
Fuel oil 321.12.69-5.84
37.82.06-3.97
Fuel oil 5A21.17.4-26.4
37.84.91-13.7
Fuel oil 5B21.126.4-
37.813.6-67.1
Fuel oil 65097.4-660
71.137.5-172
Gas oils21.113.9
37.87.4
Gasoline a15.60.88
37.80.71
Gasoline b15.60.64
37.8
Gasoline c15.60.46
37.80.4
Glycerine 100%20.3648
37.8176
Glycerine 50% water205.29
Glycol52
Glucose37.87.7M-22M
65.6880-2420
Heptanes-n-17.80.928
37.80.511
Hexane-n-17.80.683
37.80.401
Honey37.873.6
Hydrochloric acid1.9
Ink, printers37.8550-2200
54.4238-660
Insulating oil21.124.1 max
37.811.75 max
Kerosene202.71
Jet Fuel-34.47.9
Lard37.862.1
54.434.3
Lard oil37.841-47.5
54.423.4-27.1
Linseed oil37.830.5
54.418.94
Mercury21.10.118
37.80.11
Methyl acetate200.44
Methyl iodide200.213
Menhaden oil37.829.8
54.418.2
Milk201.13
Molasses A, first37.8281-5070
54.4151-1760
Molasses B, second37.81410-13200
54.4660-3300
Molasses C, blackstrap37.82630-5500
54.41320-16500
Naphthalene800.9
Neatstool oil37.849.7
54.427.5
Nitrobenzene201.67
Nonane-n-17.81.728
37.80.807
Octane-n-17.81.266
37.80.645
Olive oil37.843.2
54.424.1
Palms oil37.847.8
54.426.4
Peanut oil37.842
54.423.4
Pentane-n17.80.508
26.70.342
Petrolatum54.420.5
71.115
Petroleum ether15.631(est)
Phenol, carbolic acid11.7
201.13
Propylene glycol21.152
Quenching oil100-120
(typical)
Rapeseed oil37.854.1
54.431
Rosin oil37.8324.7
54.4129.9
Rosin (wood)37.8216-11M
93.3108-4400
Sesame seed oil37.839.6
54.423
Silicate of soda79
Sodium chloride 5%201.097
Sodium chloride 25%15.62.4
Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) 20%18.34
Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) 30%18.310
Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) 40%18.3
Soya bean oil37.835.4
54.419.64
Sperm oil37.521-23
54.415.2
Sulphuric acid 100%2014.56
Sulphuric acid 95%2014.5
Sulphuric acid 60%204.4
Sulphuric acid 20%
Tar, coke oven21.1600-1760
37.8141-308
Tar, gas house21.13300-66M
37.8440-4400
Tar, pine37.8559
55.6108.2
Toluene200.68
Triethylene glycol21.140
Turpentine37.886.5-95.2
54.439.9-44.3
Varnish, spar20313
37.8143
Water, distilled201.0038
Water, fresh15.61.13
54.40.55
Water, sea1.15
Whale oil37.835-39.6
54.419.9-23.4
Xylene-o200.93



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Mechanical Engineer (Ph.D. cand.), M.Sc. Cranfield University, Dipl.-Ing. Aristotle University, Thessaloniki - Greece.
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